By W. McIntyre
This lucid consultant meets the necessity for an up to date evaluate of the modern Commonwealth. It has a succinct part on its old heritage and offers realization to symbols and to the "People's Commonwealth" of voluntary companies, activities, and company. It highlights serious questions of stability that experience emerged among the relative roles of governments and reputable businesses, voluntary institutions, and personal company.
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Additional info for A Guide To the Contemporary Commonwealth
He was ‘terribly doubtful’ about the whole idea and was determined to demand in London what India would give in return. Would they come to the defence of fellow members? His permanent head of the External Affairs Department, Alister McIntosh, was even blunter. 6 The matter was settled remarkably smoothly at a special conference in London in 1949. As the premiers began to arrive, the Republic of Ireland left the Commonwealth on the 18 April. The very next day Lester Pearson, the Canadian Minister for External Affairs (standing in for his prime minister), called at Number 10 to talk with Sir Norman Brook, who was emphatic that India should be allowed to stay in.
The Secretariat should not ‘arrogate to itself executive functions’, but it would ‘have a constructive role to play’. 11 The Commonwealth Secretariat began work in August 1965. The first Secretary-General, a Canadian diplomat, Arnold Smith, who was by previous experience a ‘cold warrior’, had first encountered the ‘new’ Commonwealth at the 1964 meetings. In his ten-year term he had four major achievements to his credit. He asserted the independence of the Secretary-General as the servant of the Heads of Government collectively.
The Rivonia trials of 1963 kept the spotlight on the Republic. On 12 June 1964 the sentencing of Nelson Mandela and seven others to life imprisonment for sabotage reminded the world of the reality of apartheid. In his four-hour speech from the dock, Mandela told how in 1961 a conscious decision had been made to prepare for a violent liberation struggle because the door to constitutional action was closed when African political parties were banned. 6 Sporting boycotts became the most visible means for expressing disapproval of the apartheid regime.
A Guide To the Contemporary Commonwealth by W. McIntyre