Stephen J. Williams's A Welsh Grammar PDF

By Stephen J. Williams

ISBN-10: 070830737X

ISBN-13: 9780708307373

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NOTE. In natural spoken Welsh ei is pronounced as i. There is a growing tendency to pronounce it so in verse-speaking, singing, etc. PRONOUNS 49 § 72. ), â (prep. : fy mrawd a'm chwaer 'my brother and my sister'; gyda'/A dad 'with thy father'; tua'm gwlad 'towards my land; efo'M gi 'with thy dog'; na'm bwyd na'm diod 'neither my food nor my drink'; yn fwy na'th gyflog 'more than thy wages'; i'm tŷ 'to my house'; o'/A gartref 'from thy h o m e ' ; ni welais mo'/A lyfrau 'I have not seen (anything of) thy books'; i'm gweld 'to see m e ' .

Mutations after the infixed pronouns: The soft mut. g. o'th dỳ\ ni'th ẃawodd; ef a'i'^effyl; ni welsoch mo'z^ynt; i'if/am. The spirant mut. , hi a'« thaó; o'i /mentref hi; mae hi wedi rhwygo'i cŵnawd 'she has torn her flesh'; af i'ic chodi hi 'I will go to lift her'. g. i'm gwlad; gyda'm merch; o'n tref; a'ch plant; Vw gwlad hi/hwy. Note that when }i (masc. ) is the object of a verb it is followed by the radical: Fe'* gwelais ef; Pwy a'i cred hi? , hi a'i Aoen 'she and her lamb'; ein haur a'rc /tarian; gwrthododd hwy, a'a Äanfon yn ôl 'he refused them and sent them back'.

5 8 . In poetical language numerals sometimes follow plural nouns: dynion dri; angylion gant; tafodau fil; cyfoedion gant; brodyr dri. The numeral in such expressions undergoes soft mutation. § 59. Ordinals. Simple ordinals precede the noun: ailfab, y drydedd bennod, y seithfed tŷ. In composite ordinals (as with composite cardinals) the noun follows the first element: yr unfed tỳ ar ddeg; y drydedd salm ar hugain. Where large numbers are mentioned such variants as the following are sometimes heard: y bedwaredd bennod wedi'r ganfed 'the hundred and fourth chapter'.

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A Welsh Grammar by Stephen J. Williams


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